1. Sub+verb+too+adj/adv+to+verb+ex. (too......to =GZ †h bv)
The man is too old to work.
2. Sub+verb+too+adj/adv+for+personal object+to+verb+ex.
The problem was too hard for us to solve.
3. Sub+verb+so+adj/adv+that+sub+can not/could not +verb+ex. ( so ...that=GZ †h )
The sailors' throats were so dry that they could not speak a single word.
4. Sub+verb+ adj/adv+noun+ sothat/in order that+sub+can /could/may/might +verb+ex. (sothat=hv‡Z)
The farmers sow good seeds so that they can grow good crops.
5. Provided/Provided that/ Providing that ( hw`)
Sub+shall/will+verb+ex+provided/provided that/providing that+sub+v1+ex.
He will shine in life provided that he works hard.
6. Ist sentence+lest+sub+might/should+verb+ex. (lest=fq nq .... bv )
He ran away lest he might/should be seen.
7. Unless Ist sentence+sub+can/will+verb+ex. ( unless=hw` bv)
Or Imperative sentence+unless+sub+verb+ex.
Or ist sentence+ unless+sub+verb+ex.
8. Imperative sentence+until/till+sub+verb+ex. ( until/till hZÿY bv ch©šÍ)
Or Ist sentence+until/till+sub+verb+ex.
His mother will be nursing him until he comes round.
9. Imperative sentence+as long as+sub+verb+ex.
Or Ist sentence+ as long as +sub+verb+ex. (as long as hZÿY ch©šÍ)
Allah will be with us as long as our aim is honest.
10. Though/Although+sub+ verb+ex,sub+verb+ex. ( hw`I)
Though he is poor, he is honest.
11. Since/as/because+KviY hy³ evK¨+djvdj evK¨ (KviY/ †h‡nZz)
A_ev djvdj evK¨+since/as/because +KviY hy³ evK¨|
Everybody likes him because he is honest.
Since he is honest, everybody likes him.
12. If+sub+v1+ex, sub+shall/will/can/may+v1+ex.
If he comes, I shall go.
or, sub+shall/will/can/may+v1+ex+ If+sub+v1+ex.
She will not go out if it rains.
12. If +sub+v2+ex, sub+would/might/could+v1+ex.
If I were you, I would not support it.
13. If +sub+v2+ex, sub+would/might/could+v1+ex.
If they wanted, we would help them.
14. If+sub+had+v3+ex, sub+would/could/might+have+v3+ex.
If she had tried, she would have succeeded.
15. Had+sub+v3+ex, sub+ would/could/might+have+v3+ex.
Had I possessed a vast property, I would have helped the poor.
16. In spite of/despite (সত্ত্বেও)
In spite of/despite+possessive+noun, sub+verb+ex.
In spite of his poverty, he is honest.
17. In stead of, In lieu of (cwie‡Z©)
In stead of/ In lieu of+noun, sub+verb+ex.
or sub+verb+ex+ in stead of/in lieu of+noun.
18. Because of/on account of /owing to /due to (Kvi‡Y)
Because of/on account of /owing to /due to+ possessive+noun, sub+verb+ex.
or sub+verb+ex+ because of/on account of /owing to /due to+ possessive+noun
On account of his illness he could not go to college.
Everybody loves him because of his good behaviour.
19. Would rather/would sooner ............. than (eis/ZeyI)
Sub+would rather/would sooner+ v1+than+verb.
or Sub+would rather/would sooner+ v1+noun+than+noun.
20. Had better (eis fvj)
He had better go home now.
21. No sooner had+sub+v3+ex+than+sub+v2+ex.
No sooner had I gone out than he came.
22. Scarcely/Hardly+ had+sub+v3+ex+when+sub+v2+ex.
Scarcely/Hardly had I gone out when he came.
23.It is time+to+verb+ex.
It is time to leave the place.
24. It is time+for+obj+to+verb+ex.
It is time for us to leave the place.
25. It is time+subject+verb past form+ex.
It is time we/I/he/you went home.
26. It is high time we/I/he/you changed your bad habit.
27. As if/ as though (যেন)
Sub+v1+ex+as if / as though + sub+v2+ex.
He tells the matter as if/as though he knew it.
Sub+v2+ex+as if / as though+sub+ had+v3+ex.
He told the matter as if/ as though he had known it.
28. Let alone (চিন্তা করা যায় না বা ভাবা যায় না)
Sub+av+not+main verb+ex+let alone+ phrase.
He can pass in the third division let alone in the first division.
29. who, which, that, whom, whose
I saw the man who was working in the field.
The boy whom you met yesterday is my friend.
Shahana is my friend whose brother is a teacher.
I bought a shirt which was beautiful.
30. Without +v+ing+subj+can not+verb+ex.
Without taking physical exercise you can not keep your body fit.
31. By +v+ing+subj+can +verb+ex.
By taking physical exercise you can keep your body fit.
32. Present tense/Future tense+when/after+ present perfect tense.
You will return me the book when/after you have finished reading it.
N.B. v1=verb present form. v2=verb past form. v3= verb past participle.
wµqv m¤úbœ nIqvi wfbœ wfbœ mgq‡K wfbœ wfbœ Tense ev Kvj e‡j|wµqv m¤úbœ nIqvi mgq Abyhvqx Tense cÖavbZ wZb cÖKvi|h_v-
1. Present Tense
2. Past Indefinite Tense
3. Future Indefinite Tense
Present Tense (eZ©gvb Kvj): eZ©gvb Kv‡j †h wµqvi KvR nq eySvq Zv‡K eZ©gvb Kvj e‡j|
eZ©gvb Kv‡j GKwU wµqv Pvi i“‡c m¤úbœ n‡Z cv‡i| ZvB eZ©gvb Kvj Pvi cÖKvi| h_v-
1. Present Indefinite Tense (Awbw`©ó eZ©gvb Kvj)
2. Present Continuous Tense (Pjgvb eZ©gvb Kvj)
3. Present Perfect Tense (cyivNwUZ eZ©gvb Kvj)
4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (cyivNwUZ Pjgvb eZ©gvb Kvj)
Present Indefinite Tense (Awbw`©ó eZ©gvb Kvj): eZ©gvb Kv‡ji †h wµqv m¤úbœ nIqvi mgq‡K wbw`©ó Kiv hvq bv Zv‡K Awbw`©ó eZ©gvb Kvj e‡j|
evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqvi †k‡l q,i,o,I,B,m,A BZ¨vw` _v‡K|A_©vr evsjv wµqvi g~j i~‡ci mv‡_ †-Kvi A_ev w-Kvi Qvov Ab¨ wKQy hy³ nq bv|
we:`ª: evsjv ev‡K¨ mevi †k‡l wµqv _v‡K|
Present Indefinite Gi MVb : Subject+verb 1 (KZ©v Third person singular nubmer n‡j verb ‡k‡l s ev es†hvM Ki‡Z n‡e)+object+phrase+place+time.
Third Person Singular Number: He, She, It Ges †h †Kvb GKwU bvg eySv‡j Zv‡K Third Person Singular Number e‡j|
s ev es ‡hvM Kivi wbqg: Present Indefinite Tense G KZ©v Third Person Singular Number n‡j verb Gi ‡k‡l s ev es †hvM Ki‡Z nq|
es †hvM Kivi wbqg: verb Gi ‡k‡l o, ch, s, ss, sh, x or z BZ¨vw` _vK‡j Zvi H verb †k‡l es †hvM Ki‡Z n‡e|‡hgb-
catch=catches watch=watches wash=washes
go=goes do=does push=pushes
ies ‡hvM Kivi wbqg: verb Gi †k‡l Y_vK‡j ,YGi Av‡M consonant _vK‡j Y ev` w`‡q †hvM ies Ki‡Z nq| †hgb- cry=cries fly=flies dry=dries
Present Indefinite Tense: MVb: Subject+verb1(KZ©v Third person singular number n‡j verb ‡k‡l s ev es†hvM Ki‡Z n‡e)+object+phrase+place+time.
Present Indefinite Tense Gi AviI wKQy wbqg:
***evsjv ev‡K¨ wµqv bv _vK‡j nq ev nB wµqv ai‡Z n‡e|
D`vniY: wigv Zvi ¯‹z‡ji Lye †gavex QvÎx|
Rima is a very meritorious girl in her school.
we:`ª: I c‡i am e‡m. KZ©v third person singular number n‡j is e‡m, Avi Ab¨ me †ÿ‡Î are e‡m|
***evsjv ev‡K¨ Av‡Q _vK‡j|
D`vniY: Avgvi covi N‡i Avgvi GKwU my›`i †Uwej Av‡Q|
I have a beautiful table in my reading room.
we:`ª: KZ©v third person singular number n‡j has e‡m, Avi Ab¨ me †ÿ‡Î have e‡m|
***evsjv ev‡K¨ g~j wµqvi mv‡_ Ki‡Z n‡e _vK‡j
MVb: Subject+have/has+to+verb 1 (KZ©v Third person singular number has Avi Ab¨ me †ÿ‡Î have em‡e )+object+phrase+place+time.
D`vniY: Avgv‡K AvMvgxKvj XvKv †h‡Z n‡e|
I have to go Dhaka tomorrow.
***evsjv ev‡K¨ g~j wµqvi mv‡_ Ki‡Z nq _vK‡j
MVb: Subject+am/is/are+to+verb 1 (I c‡i am e‡m. KZ©v third person singular number n‡j is e‡m, Avi Ab¨ me †ÿ‡Î are e‡m| )+object+phrase+place+time.
D`vniY: Avgv‡K cªwZw`b ¯‹z‡j †h‡Z nq|
I am to go to school everyday.
***evsjv ev‡K¨ ‡Kvb wKQz Av‡Q eySv‡j
we:`ª: there Gi wbR¯^ †Kvb person & number bvB| wµqvi c‡i †h e¯‘ _vK‡e Zv GKwU n‡j is em‡e GKvwaK n‡j are em‡e|
D`vniY: Avgv‡`i ¯‹z‡j GKwU eo †Ljvi gvV Av‡Q|
There is a large playground in our school.
Present Continuous Tense (Pjgvb eZ©gvb Kvj): eZ©gvb Kv‡ji †Kvb wµqvi Pwj‡Z‡Q eySv‡j Zv‡K Present Continuous Tense e‡j|
evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: mvay iæ‡c evsjv wµqvi †k‡l Z,Q _vK‡e| PjwZ iæ‡c Q Gi Av‡Mi A‡ÿi Ô‡Õ _vK‡e bv A_ev ”Q _vK‡e| †hgb-hvB‡ZwQ, LvB‡ZwQ, hvw”Q, Lvw”Q, cowQ, KiwQ|
MVb: sub+ am/is/are+verb+ing+object+phrase+place+time.
D`vniY: Zviv gv‡V KvRwU Ki‡Q|
They are doing the work in the field.
we:`ª: verb Gi †k‡l e _vK‡j ing †hvM Kivi mgq Zv I‡V hvq|
Present perfect tense(cyivNwUZ eZ©gvb Kvj): eZ©gvb Kv‡ji †h wKªqvi KvR m¤úbœ n‡q‡Q wKš‘ djvdj GLbI we`¨gvb Av‡Q eySvq Zv‡K Present perfect tense e‡j|
evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: mvayiæ‡c evsjv wµqvi †k‡l q,Q _v‡K| PjwZ iæ‡c evsjv wµqvi †k‡l ÔQÕ Gi Av‡Mi Aÿ‡i Ô‡Õ Kvi _vK‡e| †hgb- LvBqvwQ, KwiqvwQ, †L‡qwQ, K‡iwQ BZ¨vw`|
MVb: sub+have/has+ v3+ object+phrase+place+time.
D`vniY: †m cixÿvq cÖ_g n‡q‡Q|
He has stood first in the examination.
Present perfect continuous tense (cyivNwUZ Pjgvb eZ©gvb Kvj): eZ©gvb Kv‡ji †h wµqvi KvR c~‡e© ïiæ n‡q GLbI Pwj‡Z‡Q eySvq Zv‡K Present perfect continuous tense e‡j|evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: mvay iæ‡c evsjv wµqvi †k‡l Z,Q _vK‡e| PjwZ iæ‡c Q Gi Av‡Mi A‡ÿi Ô‡Õ _vK‡e bv A_ev ”Q _vK‡e Ges nB‡Z, †_‡K,hveZ,a‡i I mgq D‡jøL _vK‡e| †hgb-hvB‡ZwQ, LvB‡ZwQ, hvw”Q, Lvw”Q, cowQ, KiwQ|
‡m `k N›Uv a‡i Nygv‡”Q|
He has been sleeping for ten hours.
Past Tense (AZxZ Kvj)
Past Indefinite Tense (Awbw`©ó AZxZ Kvj): AZxZKv‡j †h wµqvi m¤úbœ n‡qwQj eySvq Zv‡K Past Indefinite Tense e‡j|
wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqvi g~j iæ‡ci mv‡_ j, †j, jvg, Z, †Z, Zvg _vK‡e| †hgb-Kijvg, LvBjvg, cojvg , KiZvg , nvUZvg BZ¨vw`|
j,‡j,jvg _vK‡j MVb: Subject+v2+object+ phrase+place+time.
D`vniY: Avwg fvZ †Ljvg| I ate rice.
Z,‡Z,Zvg _vK‡j MVb: Subject+used to/would+v1+object+ phrase+place+time.
D`vniY: Avwg cÖwZw`b mKv‡j nvUZvg| I used to walk in the morning.
we:`ª: ev‡K¨ MZ D‡jøL _vK‡j wµqvi iæc perfect tense Gi gZ n‡jI Zv past indefinite tense n‡e|
D`vniY: evev MZKvj evwo G‡m‡Qb| Father came home yesterday.
Past Indefinite Tense Gi AviI wKQy wbqg:
*** †KD wb‡R †Kvb wKQz wQj eySv‡j |
D`vniY: wigv Zvi ¯‹z‡ji Lye †gavex QvÎx wQj|
Rima was a very meritorious girl in her school.
we:`ª: I Ges KZ©v third person singular number n‡j was e‡m, Avi Ab¨ me †ÿ‡Î were e‡m|
***Kvi gvwjKvbvq †Kvb wKQy wQj eySv‡j|
D`vniY: Avgvi covi N‡i Avgvi GKwU my›`i †Uwej wQj|
I had a beautiful table in my reading room.
***evsjv ev‡K¨ ‡Kv_vI ‡Kvb wKQz wQj eySv‡j
There+was/were+a/an/number+adverb+adjective+things+preposition+place. we:`ª: there Gi wbR¯^ †Kvb person & number bvB| wµqvi c‡i †h e¯‘ _vK‡e Zv GKwU n‡j was em‡e GKvwaK n‡j were em‡e| D`vniY: Avgv‡`i ¯‹z‡j GKwU eo Avg MvQ wQj|
There was a big mango tree in our school.
Past Continuous Tense (Pjgvb AZxZKvj): AZxZKv‡ji †Kvb wµqvi KvR Pwj‡ZwQj eySv‡j Zv‡K Past Continuous Tense e‡j|
wPwbevi Dcvq: mvayiæ‡c Z,Q Gici j, †j,jvg _vK‡e| wKš‘ PjwZ iæ‡c Q Gi Av‡Mi Aÿ‡i Ô†Õ Kvi _vK‡e bv c‡i j,‡j ,jvg _vK‡e A_ev ”Q Gi c‡i j,‡j,jvg _vK‡e| †hgb- hvw”Qjvg, cowQjvg|
D`vniY: Zviv gv‡V KvR KiwQj| They were working in the field.
Past perfect tense (cyivNwUZ AZxZ Kvj): AZxZ Kv‡ji †h wµqvi KvR c~‡e© m¤úbœ n‡q djvdj we`¨gvb wQj Zv‡K Past perfect tense e‡j|
wPwbevi Dcvq: mvayiæ‡c evsjv wµqvi †k‡l q,Q Gici j,‡j, jvg _vK‡e| PjwZ iæ‡c Q Gi Av‡Mi Aÿ‡i Ô‡Õ Kvi _vK‡e Ges c‡i j,‡j,jvg _vK‡e| cwoqvwQjvg, †L‡qwQjvg|
D`vniY: †mwjbv Zvi cov †kl K‡iwQj| Selina had finished her lessons.
Past perfect tense Gi we¯ÍvwiZ MVb: AZxZ Kv‡ji `ywU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ †hwU Av‡M m¤úbœ n‡qwQj eySvq †mwU Past perfect tense nq, AciwU Past Indefinite Tense nq|
***ev‡K¨i g‡a¨ c~‡e© _vK‡j
Wv³vi Avwmevi c~‡e© †ivwMwU gviv †Mj| The patient had died before the doctor came.
ev‡K¨i g‡a¨ ci _vK‡j MVb
Wv³vi Avwmevi ci †ivwMwU gviv †Mj| The patient died after the doctor had come.
we:`ª: Dfq †ÿ‡Î c‡ii evK¨wU Av‡M Av‡m Ges Av‡Mi evK¨ c‡i hvq| GQvov Av‡Mi before evK¨wU nq Past perfect tense Ges c‡ii evK¨wU Past Indefinite Tense nq | after Gi Av‡Mi evK¨wU nq Past Indefinite Tense Ges c‡ii evK¨wU Past perfect tense nq|
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
msÁv: AZxZKv‡ji †Kvb wµqvi KvR m¤úbœ nIqvi mgq D‡jøL _vK‡j ZLb Zv‡K Past Perfect Continuous Tense e‡j|wPwbevi Dcvq: mvayiæ‡c Z,Q Gici j, †j,jvg _vK‡e| wKš‘ PjwZ iæ‡c Q Gi Av‡Mi Aÿ‡i Ô†Õ Kvi _vK‡e bv c‡i j,‡j ,jvg _vK‡e A_ev ”Q Gi c‡i j,‡j,jvg _vK‡e Ges mgq D‡jøL _vK‡e| †hgb- hvw”Qjvg, cowQjvg|
D`vnib:Avwg `yB N›Uv hveZ Bs‡iRx cowQjvg| I had been reading English for two hours.
Future Indefinite Tense (Awbw`©ó fwel¨Z Kvj)
fwel¨Z Kv‡ji †h wµqvi KvR m¤úbœ nIqvi mgq‡K wbw`©ó Kiv hvq bv Zv‡K Future Indefinite Tense e‡j|
wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqvi †k‡l e _vK‡e| †hgb-hvBe, LvBe, cwoe BZ¨vw`|
D`vniY: Avwg AvMvgxKvj XvKv hve| I shall go to Dhaka tomorrow.
Future continuous tense ( Pjgvb fwel¨Z Kvj):
fwel¨Z Kv‡ji †h wµqvi KvR Pwj‡Z _vwK‡e eySvq Zv‡K Future continuous tense e‡j|
wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqvi cÖ_g As‡k †Z Ges wØZxq As‡k e _vwK‡e| hvB‡Z _vwKe, NygvB‡Z _vwKe, cwo‡Z _vwKe BZ¨vw`|
MVb: Sub+ shall/will+be+verb+ing+obj+ex.
D`vniY: †m eBwU cwo‡Z _vwK‡e| He will be reading the book.
Future perfect tense (Pjvgvb fwel¨Z Kvj)
fwel¨Z Kv‡j †Kvb wµqvi KvR m¤úbœ n‡q _vK‡e eySv‡j Zv‡K Future perfect tense e‡j|
wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqvi †k‡l q Ges e _vK‡e| †hgb- Kwiqv _vwKe, cwoqv _vwKe BZ¨vw`|
I shall have finished the work.
we:`ª: AviI wKQz MVb:
***‡Kvb wKQz Ki‡Z cviv eySv‡j| MVb: Subject+can+v1+ object+ex.
D`vniY: †m KvRwU Ki‡Z cv‡i| Ans. He can do the work.
*** evsjv ev‡K¨ DwPZ _vK‡j| MVb: Subject+should+v1+object+ex.
D`vniY: Avgv‡`i DwPZ evev-gv‡K m¤§vb Kiv| We should respect our parents.